Before You Reach For That Dependency
I've been thinking a lot about dependencies. This is something of a brain dump.
I'll start by giving my working definition of what a dependency is, then I'll go through a list of common dependencies. Finally, I'll present a simple model I've started using for classifying dependencies.
What is a dependency?
For the purposes of this article, I will define a dependency as any component of an experience which is outside your direct control as the developer of that experience.
Note that this definition doesn't say anything about software. Software experiences (ie apps, websites, games, etc) are only one type. Driving your car down the road, attending a concert, or playing football are all experiences, and all have dependencies. Ever tried to play football without a ball? Whoever invented the rules of football was free to design the experience however they wanted, but ultimately the experience always depends on some sort of a ball being available at "runtime".
Note that some dependencies are optional. It's ideal to wear special shoes when playing football, but it can be done with normal shoes or even barefoot, with the experience being diminished to varying degrees.
For the remainder of this article, I'm going to focus on dependencies of software experiences.
The more time users spend with a piece of software, the more they get used to a specific experience. In general, we want to avoid changing an experience unless we have a very good reason to do so (ie adding a feature that we are confident will significantly improve the experience).
The central thesis of this article is that dependencies create openings for the experiences we develop to change without our deliberately wanting them to, and so we should be thoughtful and careful about the dependencies we take on.
Examples of Dependencies
Here's a list of common dependencies.
The hardware your software runs on is a dependency. In general, you as a developer have little to no control what hardware your users run your software on. A user may be perfectly happy running your app on the latest flagship Android phone, but then they lose their phone and have to downgrade to a budget model for a few months, and suddenly your app is unusable for them.
Note that developers who make software for Apple products have a huge advantage here. The number of devices they need to test on is vastly smaller than developers for Windows, Linux, and especially Android.
Hardware is particularly a challenge with web development, where the same software stack is used to develop for every imaginable type of hardware. Not only that, but this stack is running a dynamic, interpreted language with many layers of security and abstraction. One of the most exciting things about WebAssembly is the potential to normalize web app performance across a wider range of hardware.
In cases where you can control the hardware, it's amazing the levels of consistency and reliability you can achieve. Last year I developed some forearm pain in both arms from typing too much, so I made some Arduino-based foot pedals so I didn't have to strain so much to hit combo keys. I have a pair at home and work, that have both been working 24/7 for a year. No failures, no glitches, no reboots necessary.
If your app is too tightly coupled to a specific version of an operating system, when the user updates their computer your app might quit working. This is a much bigger problem on systems like Linux. I often have issues with apps not being able to find the right versions of dynamic libraries.
From what I've heard, Windows has an excellent backwards-compatibility history. Mobile OSes seem to be somewhere in the middle.
One example I've seen is where an OS adopts a specific design paradigm (such as Material Design for Android), and there becomes pressure to overhaul your app so the UI is consistent with the rest of the OS.
Programming Language Compilers/Runtimes
The functionality, performance, and distribution of your app are deeply tied to your choice of programming language. Fortunately, these are some of the most stable dependencies around.
An obvious exception is new or quickly evolving languages. Rust syntax looks very different post-1.0 than it did in the beginning, and even today the async story is rapidly changing.
Bundlers, transpilers, minifiers, uglifiers, etc.
They're called "dev dependencies" for a reason. Have you ever done a fresh,
npm init' followed by '
npm install webpack webpack-cli' then taken a peek in
Speaking of npm, I think it belongs here as well. Yes, npm is a dependency. Especially if the experience you're providing is a library that is only installable by using it. It's perfectly possible to write a node service or browser application without having a package.json at all. As a matter of fact, that's the case with this website, and my personal website, both of which are single-page apps with few dependencies.
Note that Python/pip is a similar story to npm.
The internet can be a huge dependency, and if interfaced with poorly, a huge liability. The quality of different connections (and even a single connection over time) varies wildly, and is affected by outages, congestion, solar flares, Georgian women with shovels, and whatever the cloud decided to have for breakfast on a given morning.
If your app relies on an internet connection at runtime, almost by definition you are shipping a software experience which is constantly changing. Just because people have become accustomed to dealing with slow internet connections doesn't mean it's ok for us to abuse the internet as a dependency. There are many techniques for improving the user experience, the most basic of which is communicating what exactly is going on.
Time-to-first-byte is often touted as one of the most important attributes of web software. Maybe that's true. I'm inclined to question it, and I think it depends on whether you're talking about a content website, or a web app. If it's an app, and I have a choice between waiting 5 seconds for it to download all the code and enough data for page changes to be instantaneous, vs an instant first page followed by variable page loads later, content jumping around as things stream in, etc, I'll take the 5 seconds every time. Especially if it gives me a loading bar.
It's all about expectations. For year, gamers have been waiting hours on huge downloads before they can even run the game. Because once the download is done, the performance is great.
Note that fast first load and instant page navigations are not mutually exclusive.
These days, browsers are essentially in the same category as operating systems. If Chrome, Firefox, or Safari decided one day to make a major change, your app could instantly break for thousands of users. Fortunately, web browsers generally have an exceptionally good backwards compatibility story. Our current browsers will gladly run JS from 10 years ago, and I expect the JS I'm writing today to still work 10 years from now. That's impressive.
Links are a central part of the web. However, they also make any given web experience incredibly brittle. Any web page you make is dependent on every link on that page. If you link to an external page, and that page disappears (which happens often), your experience is now broken.
You could always link out to the Internet Archive, but then you're centralizing all your link dependencies. I think the long-term solution to this problem could be something like IPFS, where websites pin versions of everything they link to. But that has its own problems, like if you link out to an insecure version of a web app. This would basically be the web's version of static linking.
These ones are obvious. They're what I usually think of first when people talk about dependencies. If you're using a large framework that does a lot of heavy lifting for you app, you're at the mercy of that framework (and its likely many sub-dependencies) for your experience to remain consistent. The less you understand what that framework is doing under the hood, the more vulnerable you are.
That doesn't mean frameworks are bad. A new developer with an exciting idea might be able to crank out a prototype using a framework where they would otherwise get bogged down with platform details.
However, in general I advocate learning the platform over time, not necessarily to avoid using frameworks, but to reduce the vulnerability that comes from dependance on them. If your framework just can't do what you need it to (or as performantly as you need it to), ideally you should be able to throw it out and implement a bespoke replacement.
Just a few days ago, the inventor of NPM made a change in minipass, which broke node-pre-gyp (I still don't know how exactly it depends on minipass, since it's not a direct dependency...), which broke bcrypt, which broke our Docker build, and a lot of other people's stuff. Kudos to them for working to fix it right away.
Note that although pinning versions of the libraries we're using would have
avoided this particular problem for us, and is a good idea in general, it is
not a silver bullet.
package-lock.json can save you from your app breaking
overnight, but in general there are going to be security updates and other
If your app/experience relies on a specific dataset, that's a dependency. One example would be an interactive data visualization. If you collected and control the data yourself, this likely isn't a problem. However, if the data comes from a 3rd source that is constantly changing, you're dependant on that source, or risk the data becoming stale. Even if the data doesn't change, you may be dependant on a 3rd party not changing their usage policies.
Closely related to datasets is APIs, which are often used to access datasets such as Twitter. Over time, companies have consistently locked their APIs down more and more to prevent 3rd party developers from making alternative interfaces. This makes sense from a business point of view; you can't show ads on an app you don't control. If you're going to rely on an API to develop your app, make sure you understand the business incentives of all parties involved, and what that likely means for the long-term viability of your app.
A Mental Model for Categorizing Dependencies
There are many different metrics we can use to gauge the risk of adding a certain dependency, or to compare different dependencies with each other. One criteria is how much control do you have over the dependency itself? A small, in-house library provided by the team down the hall is much lower risk than an off-the-shelf closed source framework. In general, the less work a dependency is doing for you, and the more generic it is (ie easy to replace with an alternative), the safer it is to use it.
As I was thinking about this, I started breaking dependencies down into several distinct categories. This is how I think of them:
- Platform Dependencies
- Data Dependencies
- Logic Dependencies
Platform dependencies are the most fundamental type. These include hardware, operating systems, web browsers, programming language compilers/runtimes, and APIs. Pretty much every software project is going to have platform dependencies. APIs are unique here because they are much more risky than the others. Rarely do popular APIs provide their source code, and even if they did, usually it's the data behind it that's actually valuable. You're giving a 3rd party complete control over the functionality of your app, with a high liklihood of it changing. However, sometimes there is no choice. If you want to develop a Facebook app, you have to use their API.
Platform dependencies are the level where you're almost certainly wasting your time trying to build it yourself (which doesn't mean that's never a good choice).
Data dependencies include things like public datasets, well-known lookup tables, and sometimes even algorithms. One nice thing about these is that they are often strongly related to something in the physical world, which lends them a certain gravity that helps prevent them changing over time. For example, the CORDIC algorithm/lookup tables have been around essentially unchanged for many years, and will be useful in this form for many more, because they are closely tied to a) math and b) fundamental hardware architecture that is almost univerally used in our current computing systems.
When re-writing my personal website recently, I tried to avoid dependencies as much as possible. The site does have 2 though: a markdown-to-html converter and a syntax highlighter. The syntax highlighter is a great example of a data dependency. The core logic is unlikely to change from language to language, and might be something I would consider writing myself. However, it's not worth my time duplicating the effort already put into creating grammars for all the supported languages.
Given their ubiquity and stable nature, I don't worry too much about using data dependencies.
Note that public datasets that are trapped behind an API aren't pure data dependencies, unless you can download the entire dataset.
Logic dependencies are the least desirable (and most avoidable) type. Logic here refers to basic programming logic, ie if/then, loops, etc. Frameworks and most libraries (except thin wrappers around datasets) are in this category. These dependencies include basically any unit of functionality which you could write yourself and avoid the dependency. However, there's a tradeoff here. The more complicated the job being done by the dependency, the more you should consider whether it's worth doing it yourself.
My rule of thumb is that if I'm not familiar with the inner workings of a dependency, to spend a bit of time trying to implement it myself. Maybe an hour or two. Maybe a day or two. Sometimes I give up and decide to use the dependency. Sometimes I realize I only need a tiny piece of the functionality and implementing it myself is the right answer. Either way, I learn a lot and can make a faster decision the next time. Plus if I do take on a dependency, I likely have a much better idea what it's doing for me after going through this process.
Client-side routing is one thing I recently realized is simpler than I thought (for the features I need, at least) and don't always need a library for.
Something that I doubt I'd ever try to write from scratch is a WYSIWYG HTML editor. It's a very complex task, and there are already high quality, pluggable solutions out there.
Dependencies are a necessary part of developing useful software experiences. However, there is always a cost associated with taking on a dependency. Generally, I try to avoid dependencies, and when I do need them, I try to only use them in places where they could be swapped out for a similar option. The syntax highlighter mentioned earlier is a great example of this. Doing this is easier if you make a wrapper that only exposes the features you need.
I hope I've given you one or two new ideas to consider the next time you're faced with the choice of whether to take on a dependency.
 Let's be honest, web developers will probably find a way to waste it.